Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting rice starch digestibility

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The current incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is at global epidemic levels. To mitigate their impact, there is a need to develop starch-containing foods that give rise to a low and stable postprandial blood glucose response by increasing the proportion of slowly-digestible and indigestible carbohydrate content. Rice is an ideal target food for such dietary intervention because it is a staple food for over half the world's population. Scope and approach: The starch digestion of cooked white rice grains is usually complete or near complete upon consumption, but the rate of digestion is influenced by intrinsic food properties and extrinsic influences. This review provides an overview of the complex interplay between the starch granule and its interaction with non-starch components of the rice grain (intrinsic characteristics) as well as the effects of processing (extrinsic factors) on starch digestibility. Key findings and conclusions: The intrinsic properties of white rice grains play a significant role in starch digestibility which can be further enhanced after processing, especially by gelatinisation and retrogradation. Post-harvest storage conditions of rice were found to influence starch digestibility but this effect was temperature-dependent. Limited studies investigated starch-lipid and starch-protein interactions in rice, but changes to substrate accessibility have been implicated. Improving our understanding of the effects of processing on starch digestibility can provide an effective tool for food manufacturers to regulate starch digestibility of existing rice varieties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-22
Number of pages13
JournalTrends in Food Science and Technology
Volume88
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

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Intrinsic Factor
rice starch
Starch
digestibility
starch
rice
Food
Digestion
digestion
Oryza
retrogradation
staple foods
gelatinization
carbohydrate content
starch granules
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
storage conditions
food quality
blood glucose
food industry

Cite this

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title = "Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting rice starch digestibility",
abstract = "Background: The current incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is at global epidemic levels. To mitigate their impact, there is a need to develop starch-containing foods that give rise to a low and stable postprandial blood glucose response by increasing the proportion of slowly-digestible and indigestible carbohydrate content. Rice is an ideal target food for such dietary intervention because it is a staple food for over half the world's population. Scope and approach: The starch digestion of cooked white rice grains is usually complete or near complete upon consumption, but the rate of digestion is influenced by intrinsic food properties and extrinsic influences. This review provides an overview of the complex interplay between the starch granule and its interaction with non-starch components of the rice grain (intrinsic characteristics) as well as the effects of processing (extrinsic factors) on starch digestibility. Key findings and conclusions: The intrinsic properties of white rice grains play a significant role in starch digestibility which can be further enhanced after processing, especially by gelatinisation and retrogradation. Post-harvest storage conditions of rice were found to influence starch digestibility but this effect was temperature-dependent. Limited studies investigated starch-lipid and starch-protein interactions in rice, but changes to substrate accessibility have been implicated. Improving our understanding of the effects of processing on starch digestibility can provide an effective tool for food manufacturers to regulate starch digestibility of existing rice varieties.",
keywords = "Cooking, Digestibility, Processing, Retrogradation, Rice, Starch",
author = "Toutounji, {Michelle R.} and Asgar Farahnaky and Santhakumar, {Abishek B.} and Prakash Oli and Butardo, {Vito M.} and Blanchard, {Christopher L.}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.tifs.2019.02.012",
language = "English",
volume = "88",
pages = "10--22",
journal = "Trends in Food Science and Technology",
issn = "0924-2244",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting rice starch digestibility

AU - Toutounji, Michelle R.

AU - Farahnaky, Asgar

AU - Santhakumar, Abishek B.

AU - Oli, Prakash

AU - Butardo, Vito M.

AU - Blanchard, Christopher L.

PY - 2019/6

Y1 - 2019/6

N2 - Background: The current incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is at global epidemic levels. To mitigate their impact, there is a need to develop starch-containing foods that give rise to a low and stable postprandial blood glucose response by increasing the proportion of slowly-digestible and indigestible carbohydrate content. Rice is an ideal target food for such dietary intervention because it is a staple food for over half the world's population. Scope and approach: The starch digestion of cooked white rice grains is usually complete or near complete upon consumption, but the rate of digestion is influenced by intrinsic food properties and extrinsic influences. This review provides an overview of the complex interplay between the starch granule and its interaction with non-starch components of the rice grain (intrinsic characteristics) as well as the effects of processing (extrinsic factors) on starch digestibility. Key findings and conclusions: The intrinsic properties of white rice grains play a significant role in starch digestibility which can be further enhanced after processing, especially by gelatinisation and retrogradation. Post-harvest storage conditions of rice were found to influence starch digestibility but this effect was temperature-dependent. Limited studies investigated starch-lipid and starch-protein interactions in rice, but changes to substrate accessibility have been implicated. Improving our understanding of the effects of processing on starch digestibility can provide an effective tool for food manufacturers to regulate starch digestibility of existing rice varieties.

AB - Background: The current incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is at global epidemic levels. To mitigate their impact, there is a need to develop starch-containing foods that give rise to a low and stable postprandial blood glucose response by increasing the proportion of slowly-digestible and indigestible carbohydrate content. Rice is an ideal target food for such dietary intervention because it is a staple food for over half the world's population. Scope and approach: The starch digestion of cooked white rice grains is usually complete or near complete upon consumption, but the rate of digestion is influenced by intrinsic food properties and extrinsic influences. This review provides an overview of the complex interplay between the starch granule and its interaction with non-starch components of the rice grain (intrinsic characteristics) as well as the effects of processing (extrinsic factors) on starch digestibility. Key findings and conclusions: The intrinsic properties of white rice grains play a significant role in starch digestibility which can be further enhanced after processing, especially by gelatinisation and retrogradation. Post-harvest storage conditions of rice were found to influence starch digestibility but this effect was temperature-dependent. Limited studies investigated starch-lipid and starch-protein interactions in rice, but changes to substrate accessibility have been implicated. Improving our understanding of the effects of processing on starch digestibility can provide an effective tool for food manufacturers to regulate starch digestibility of existing rice varieties.

KW - Cooking

KW - Digestibility

KW - Processing

KW - Retrogradation

KW - Rice

KW - Starch

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DO - 10.1016/j.tifs.2019.02.012

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