Investigations of AGEs’ inhibitory and nephroprotective potential of ursolic acid towards reduction of diabetic complications

Kishor Mazumder, Biswajit Biswas, Abdullah Al Mamun, Hasan Billah, Ahsan Abid, Kishore Kumar Sarkar, Bisti Saha, Shorrowar Azom, Philip G. Kerr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In diabetes, interactions between AGEs (advanced glycation end products) and RAGEs (receptors of AGEs) are responsible for chronic complications and the current work reports the potential of ursolic acid as a RAGE inhibitor. The three-dimensional crystal structure of RAGE was first docked with target molecules by ‘AutodockVina’ using GROMOS 96 4381 parameters. Druggability and pharmacokinetic properties were calculated from the SwissADME server. In vitro bovine serum albumin (BSA)–glucose fluorescence and BSA–methylglyoxal fluorescence assays were also performed. Finally, alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered ursolic acid and metformin standards (at 1, 50, 100 mg/kg) for 50 days. Blood glucose levels, several blood parameters, blood lipid profiles, supernatants of homogenized kidney and plasma of mice were examined. In the computational study, ursolic acid showed greater binding affinity (-7.5 kcal/mol) for RAGE with an ADMET profiles and lead-likeness compared to metformin as a standard antidiabetic. In the in vitro fluorescence assays, the IC50 value for ursolic acid was much less than that of metformin standard. During the in vivo study, significant reduction in the levels of blood glucose, HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin), creatinine, uric acid, BUN (blood urea nitrogen), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) were observed in the ursolic acid and metformin-treated mice. Substantial inhibition of AGEs’ formation in the plasma and kidney were also detected. Finally, the histopathological examinations of the kidney revealed reversal of cellular necrosis. Hence, ursolic acid is proved to be a potent AGE inhibitory agent in managing the diabetic complications. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)490-503
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Natural Medicines
Volume76
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2022

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