Bipolar disorder is a significant psychiatric condition comprisinga recurring pattern of deterioration including signs and symptoms of mania, hypomania and major depression(McCloud et al., 2015). During periods of significant depressionthe risk of self-harm or suicide is heightened. Thereforetreatments for acute depression are being researched. Glutamate receptor modulators are a group of drugs that show somepromise in their ability to counter the acute phase of depressionexperienced during unipolar depression (Caddy et al., 2015), or the period of depression experienced during bipolar disorder. Ketamine, a glutamate receptor modulator, appears to have arapid effect on acute depression. Although the effect is rapid, itis transient, hence repeated ketamine administration is requiredfor enduring effect. The long-term use of ketamine for depression is cautioned as the adverse effects of long-term effects of repeated exposure to ketamine are unclear and cause for concern, and while not the focus of the review is important to keep in mind (McCloud et al., 2015; Zhang & Ho, 2016).