Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and understanding about hypertension among residents in Lhasa, Tibet. Methods: A total of 1, 370 native Tibetan people aged >= 18 years old were enrolled in this survey. Individuals were selected using stratified proportional sampling and Lhasa was divided into Urban, Suburban, Agricultural and Pastoral areas. Data pertaining to blood pressure, socio-demographic details, knowledge and perceptions about hypertension were obtained. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was highest among Urban participants (56.1%) and lowest among Pastoral participants (34.2%). The awareness of hypertension (43.1%) was lowest among Agricultural participants. Less than one third of the respondents knew the normal range of blood pressure. A considerable proportion (49.2%) had no idea of risk factors and consequences of hypertension. With regard to prevention and control, about 30% of the respondents did not know the lifestyle changes for hypertension prevention. Regarding treatment, 30% of participants did not provide an answer. Most of the respondents acquired knowledge of hypertension from healthcare providers. Participants from the Agricultural areas had the lowest knowledge of hypertension. Approximately 75.5% of hypertensive patients ceased antihypertensive medications on their own after improvement of blood pressure. Conclusions: The understanding of hypertension was poor among the native Tibetan people in Lhasa. There is a need to improve education and primary health care services to this large hypertensive population.