Laboratory diagnostics for birds

Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperChapter in textbook/reference bookpeer-review


Laboratory testing plays a very important role in avian health assessment and should focus on detecting and characterizing organ system derangement and the pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as helping detect specific etiologies. General tests such as hematology and plasma protein electrophoresis are invaluable for assessing both innate immune responses and alterations in the erythron, which can provide information on chronicity and severity of disease as well as providing baseline prognostic indications of recovery. Birds are predominantly uricotelic, and clinicopathologic assessments of the renal system must consider that the kidneys, the intestinal tract, the salt glands, the skin, and the respiratory tract as well as the energy status might all contribute to avian osmoregulation and nitrogenous waste excretion. Dietary considerations are also important, with the enhanced protein catabolism of carnivorous birds causing postprandial elevations and otherwise higher reference blood uric acid ranges in raptors and penguins.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationExotic animal laboratory diagnosis
EditorsJ. Jill Heatley, Karen E. Russell
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781119108610
ISBN (Print)9780470960356
Publication statusPublished - 06 Mar 2020

Publication series

NameExotic Animal Laboratory Diagnosis


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