Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) poses a significant challenge clinically, as it can invade facial bones and cause bone pain that is undertreated and poorly understood. Here we studied HNSCC bone pain (HNSCC-BP) in an intratibial mouse xenograft model that uses a human HNSCC cell line (SAS cells). These mice develop HNSCC-BP associated with an upregulation of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2), which is a molecular indicator of neuron excitation in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of sensory nerve cell bodies. Our experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) by short hairpin (shRNA) transduction suppressed the HNSCC-BP, the lactate level in bone marrow, and the pERK1/2 expression in DRG. The sensory nerves also expressed increased levels of the acid-sensing receptor TRPV1. DRG neurons co-cultured with SAS cells showed increased neurite outgrowth, and were inhibited by MCT4 silencing with shRNA. Collectively, our results show that HNSCC induced an acidic bone microenvironment that evokes HNSCC-BP via MCT4 expression.