A survey was undertaken to characterise larval anisakid nematodes present in teleosts at Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. A total of 464 fish were examined from 32 families, 62 genera and 107 species. Anisakid nematodes were found in 46 (9.9%) of the fish examined. Infections in Atherinidae, Lethrinidae, Lutjanidae and Serranidae were moderately prevalent, with the intensities of infection ranging from 1 to 80; whereas in the Sphyraenidae and Scombridae, the prevalence of infection was very high, with intensities ranging from 1 to >375 anisakids. A combined morphological and molecular-phylogenetic approach was employed to identify larval anisakid nematodes to species and/or genotypes. The nematodes examined were identified as Anisakis typica (three genotypes based on molecular characterisation); Terranova Types I (five genotypes) and II (five genotypes); and Hysterothylacium Types IV, V (four genotypes), VI and X. The findings of the present study provide some insights into the distribution of larval anisakid nematodes in coral reef fishes and a basis for future investigations of anisakid populations in marine fishes.