Looking through racism in the nurse–patient relationship from the lens of culturally congruent care: A scoping review

Mojtaba Vaismoradi, Cathrine Fredriksen Moe, Gøril Ursin, Kari Ingstad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
79 Downloads (Pure)


Aim: This review aimed to identify the nature of racism in the nurse–patient relationship and summarize international research findings about it. 

Design: A scoping review of the international literature. Data sources: The search process encompassed three main online databases of PubMed (including MEDLINE), Scopus and Embase, from 2009 until 2021. 

Review methods: The scoping review was informed by the Levac et al.’s framework to map the research phenomenon and summarize current empirical research findings. Also, the review findings were reflected in the three-dimensional puzzle model of culturally congruent care in the discussion section.

Results: The search process led to retrieving 149 articles, of which 10 studies were entered into data analysis and reporting results. They had variations in the research methodology and the context of the nurse–patient relationship. The thematical analysis of the studies' findings led to the development of three categories as follows: bilateral ignition of racism, hidden and manifest consequences of racism and encountering strategies. 

Conclusion: Racism threatens patients' and nurses' dignity in the healthcare system. There is a need to develop a framework of action based on the principles of culturally congruent care to eradicate racism from the nurse–patient relationship in the globalized context of healthcare. Impact: Racism in the nurse–patient relationship has remained a relatively unexplored area of the nursing literature. It hinders efforts to meet patients' and families' needs and increases their dissatisfaction with nursing care. Also, racism from patients towards nurses causes emotional trauma and enhances job-related stress among nurses. Further research should be conducted on this culturally variant phenomenon. Also, the participation of patients and nurses should be sought to prohibit racism in healthcare settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2665-2677
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number9
Early online date20 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


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