Patients with kidney stones (n = 59) and healthy controls (n = 31) collected a 24-hour urine sample and later underwent a 6-hour 'fast and load' test in which an oral calcium load was taken after 2 hours. In the 24-hour urine sample, mean calcium excretion was higher in patients than controls, while mean urate, oxalate and citrate levels were similar. The patients had higher levels of fasting plasma calcium, serum calcitriol and fasting urinary calcium, and lower levels of plasma phosphate than did the controls. Following the calcium load, plasma and urinary calcium increased similarly in both groups. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were similar in both groups and decreased similarly following the calcium load. Multiple linear regression, relating the presence or absence of stone formation to all variables, found the only variables significantly related to stone formation to be plasma levels of calcium (p < 0.001) and phosphate (p = 0.001) and fasting urinary urea (p < 0.001), and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (p < 0.05). Urinary oxalate and citrate were not related to stone formation. The data do not support the hypothesis that primary stimulation by calcitriol produces a normal fasting plasma calcium level, with an exaggerated increase after an oral calcium load. The findings instead suggest an abnormality of parathyroid cell 'set point', such that PTH secretion continues until the plasma calcium level is a little higher and the phosphate a little lower than in controls.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Quarterly Journal of Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 01 Jan 1992|