In this article, we develop a modelling approach which examines selected drivers of ecosystem functioning and agricultural productivity. In particular, we develop linkagesbetween land use and biodiversity and between biodiversity and agricultural productivity. We review the literature for quantitative estimates of key relationships and their parameters for modelling human consumption, land use, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions on biodiversity and agricultural productivity. We assemble these specifications into an iterative causal model and carry out a number of scenario projections of country-level consumption, production, land use, energy use, greenhouse gasemissions, species diversity, and agricultural production up to 2050. Finally, we dissect the projections into key drivers using structural decomposition and sensitivity analyses.
Lenzen, M., Dey, C., Foran, B., Widmer-Cooper, A., Ohlemüller, R., Williams, M., & Wiedmann, T. (2013). Modelling interactions between economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity and agricultural productivity. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 18(4), 377-416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10666-012-9341-3