Hysterothylacium species are perhaps the most abundant and diverse group of marine ascaridoids; however, their life cycle and specific identification in larval stages in many parts of the world, particularly in Iraqi marine waters, have not been completely understood. In this study three members of the genus Hysterothylacium collected from Khor Abdulla in Iraq are morphologically described, genetically characterized and their relationship with other closely related taxa are compared and discussed. A new Hysterothylacium larval type in the fourth stage of development is described, and morphological and molecular evidence (based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers) are provided for its distinction from previously known fourth-stage Hysterothylacium larval types. Based on the sequence data it is suggested that the new larval type, which herein was assigned as Hysterothylacium larval type XVI, is H. persicum which was previously reported from the close proximity in Bandar Abbas, Iran. In addition, two other taxa, including Hysterothylacium larval type XV and H. reliquens, have been found in the present study, for which new hosts are reported. This study provides some insights into the taxonomy and systematics of these parasites, not only in this region but also for similar studies elsewhere.
Ghadam, M., Banaii, M., Mohammed, E. T., Suthar, J., & Shamsi, S. (2018). Morphological and molecular characterization of selected species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda:Raphidascarididae) from marine fish in Iraqi waters. Journal of Helminthology, 92(1), 116-124. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X17000128