Determining factors responsible for increases in the mortality of freshwater fish larvae are important for the conservation of recruitment processes and for the long-term sustainability of freshwater fish populations. To assess the impact of one such process, Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii Mitchell) and golden perch (Macquaria ambigua Richardson) larvae were arranged into treatment and control groups and passed through different configurations (overshot and undershot) of a low-level weir. Passage through an undershot weir resulted in the death of 95 ± 1% golden perch and 52 ± 13% Murray cod. By comparison, mortality was significantly lower in the overshot treatment and both controls. The relatively large number of undershot weirs within the known distribution of these species could impact upon recruitment over a large scale. It is therefore recommended that water management authorities consider the potential threats of operating undershot gated weirs on the survival of larval fish until further research determines appropriate mitigatory measures for these and other species.