Background: Malaria is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children aged <5 y (U5s). This study assessed individual, household and community risk factors for malaria in Nigerian U5s. Methods: Data from the Nigerian Malaria Health Indicator Survey 2015 were pooled for analyses. This comprised a national survey of 329 clusters. Children aged 6-59 mo who were tested for malaria using microscopy were retained. Multilevel logit model accounting for sampling design was used to assess individual, household and community factors associated with malaria parasitaemia. Results: A total of 5742 children were assessed for malaria parasitaemia with an overall prevalence of 27% (95% CI 26 to 28%). Plasmodium falciparum constituted 98% of the Plasmodium species. There was no significant difference in parasitaemia between older children and those aged ≤12 mo. In adjusted analyses, rural living, northwest region, a household size of >7, dependence on river and rainwater as primary water source were associated with higher odds of parasitaemia, while higher wealth index, all U5s who slept under a bed net and dependence on packaged water were associated with lower odds of parasitaemia. Conclusion: Despite sustained investment in malaria control and prevention, a quarter of the overall study population of U5s have malaria. Across the six geopolitical zones, the highest burden was in children living in the poorest rural households.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene|
|Publication status||Published - 18 Sep 2020|