Background Little is known about muscle morphology in people with hip-related pain, without signs of femoro-acetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Identifying changes in hip muscle volume, fatty infiltrate and establishing relationships between muscle volume and strength, may provide insight into potential early treatment strategies. Purposes To: (i) compare the volumes and fatty infiltrate of gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimis, tensor fascia latae and quadratus femoris between symptomatic and less-symptomatic sides of participants with hip-related pain; (ii) compare the volumes and fatty infiltrate of hip muscles between healthy controls and symptomatic participants; and (iii) explore relationships of hip muscle volumes to muscle strength and patient-reported outcome measures in people with hip-related pain. Study Design Cross-sectional study Methods Muscle volume and fatty infiltrate (from magnetic resonance imaging), hip muscle strength, patient-reported symptoms, function and quality of life (QOL) were determined for 16 participants with hip-related pain (no clinical signs of FAIS; 37±9 years) and 15 controls (31±9 years). Using One Way Analysis of Co-Variance tests, muscle volume and fatty infiltrate was compared between the symptomatic and less-symptomatic sides in participants with hip-related pain as well as between healthy controls and symptomatic participants. In addition, hip muscle volume was correlated with hip muscle strength, hip-reported symptoms, function and QOL. Results No differences in all the studied muscle volumes or fatty infiltrate were identified between the symptomatic and less-symptomatic hips of people with hip-related pain; or between people with and without hip-related pain. Greater GMED volume on the symptomatic side was associated with less symptoms and better function and QOL (ρ=0.522-0.617) for those with hip-related pain. Larger GMAX volume was associated with greater hip abduction and internal rotation strength, larger GMED volume was Joanne L. Kemp La Trobe Sport & Exercise Medicine Research Centre, School of Allied Health La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086, AUSTRALIA Tel: +61 3 9479 1428 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: +61 3 9479 5768 associated with greater hip extension strength, and larger QF volume was associated with greater hip abduction strength (rho=0.507-0.638). Conclusion People with hip-related pain and no clinical signs of FAIS have hip muscle volumes that are not significantly different than those of matched pain-free controls or their less-symptomatic hip. Larger GMED muscle volume was associated with fewer symptoms and greater strength.