Novel secure surgical telepresence using enhanced advanced encryption standard: During, pre and post surgery

Siddhartha Shakya, Abeer Alsadoon, P. W.C. Prasad, Sami Haddad, Linh Pham, Ahmad Alrubaie, Anand Deva, Jeremy Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Security during surgical telepresence has not yet been sufficiently considered. This paper aims to propose a solution to enhance security during surgery between the site of surgery (local site) and the site that hosts the expert surgeon (remote site). The proposed system consists of an Enhanced Advanced Encryption Standard, which enhances the confusion and diffusion of the encrypted video. Two-factor authentication have been used biometrics and a one-time password complemented by archiving that are also considered for pre and post-surgery respectively. In the proposed system the substitution box and shift rows are eliminated and replaced with mix row step, this leads to increase the complexity of the proposed system. Also the Henon chaiotic map was used in the key generation process, and this is provided more randomness. The results demonstrate that the proposed encryption method increases the entropy of the encrypted video by 0.25% compared to the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. In addition, a reduction in processing time have been achieved, for encryption and decryption by 24% and 38% respectively. For testing the strength of security, we measure the plain-text sensitivity by using the information entropy, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). Also, the encryption/decryption time is measured for the proposed algorithm and state of the art algorithm. The decreasing in PSNR means the stronger encryption algorithm, and while the PSNR of the proposed system was decreased then this leads to better encryption method. The proposed system aims to enhance surgical network security to make it viable for implementation during surgery where data is exchanged under conditions of telepresence. The proposed system eliminates the limitation of the traditional AES algorithm. The proposed EAES provides high security by increasing the entropy while decreasing the encryption and decryption time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14265–14290
Number of pages25
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Issue number19-20
Early online date14 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


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