Christine Williamson

    Research output: Book chapter/Published conference paperChapter in textbook/reference bookpeer-review


    This chapter focusses on the rich and varied approaches to observation as a technique or tool available to researchers. The flexibility of observation enables it to be used in a range of different research methods, often in combination with other techniques such as interviews. There is also a variety of kinds of observation, including structured or unstructured forms as well as different levels of participation, from non-participation to complete participation. The chapter discusses the various ways in which “participationâ€� has been conceptualised, frequently focussing on observer roles. Examples of several different types of observation provide illustration. Issues concerned with ways of undertaking observation are also discussed, e.g., gaining entry to a setting and selecting a sample and data collection which includes note taking. Validity and reliability, together with ethical issues, specifically focussed on observation, are also within the scope of the chapter.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationResearch Methods
    Subtitle of host publicationInformation, Systems, and Contexts
    EditorsKirsty Williamson, Graeme Johanson
    Place of PublicationPrahran, VIC
    PublisherTilde University Press
    Number of pages22
    ISBN (Print)9780734611482
    Publication statusPublished - 2013


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