Anisakid nematodes are the most infamous parasites occurring in seafood with ability to infect humans. In the present study, the infective stages of five anisakid larval types, including Anisakis types I and III, Terranova types I and II and Contracaecum larval type, as well as adult Anisakis paggiae are reported from 16 host species from New Caledonian waters. The specific identity of the larval types was investigated using ITS sequence data. Anisakis larval types I and III were identified as Anisakis typica and Anisakis brevispiculata, respectively, based on identical ITS sequences. However, the specific identity of the Terranova larval types and Contracaecum larval type remains unknown until a matching ITS sequence from a well-identified adult is available. Several fish host species are reported for the first time for anisakid larval types found in this study. Considering that third-stage larvae of anisakids are known to be the infective stage of the parasite for humans and the popularity of seafood in New Caledonia, presence of these parasites in New Caledonian fish is of high importance in terms of public health and raising awareness among various stakeholders. Although adult nematodes in the present study were identified as Anisakis paggiae, the spicule length is shorter in our specimens and falls within the range reported for Anisakis oceanicus previously reported in Pacific waters from black fish (genus Globicephala) and later synonymised with Anisakis physeteris. However, our specimens are different from A. physeteris in morphology of ventriculus. Anisakis paggiae has been reported from whales in southern hemisphere and this is the first report from the Pacific regions.