The unique and delicate flavour of olive oil is attributed to the volatile compounds that develop during and after oil extraction fromthe olive fruit. The formation of these volatile compounds and the fruit characteristics that affect the formation are examined in thisreview. The role of extraction time -temperature interactions in volatile development and other factors that impact volatile evelopment, such as fruit storage prior to oil extraction, are also considered. The volatile compounds that develop during extraction become less dominant during oil storage with the emergence of volatile compounds from chemical oxidation. The presence or absence of particular volatile compounds partly explains quality differences in olive oils.