Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the conditions for preparing ÃŸ-carotene nanoemulsions. The effects of ÃŸ-carotene (0.2'1.8%, w/w) and emulsifier (6.9'13.1%, w/w) concentrations, the homogenization pressure (79.1'140.9 MPa) and temperature (34.5'65.5 °C) on the particle size and stability of the nanoemulsions were studied. Results showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (R2) of 0.921 and 0.981 for the particle size and stability, respectively. Homogenization pressure and ÃŸ-carotene concentration and the quadrics of ÃŸ-carotene concentration (P<0.05) had a significant effect on the particle size of the nanoemulsions. Homogenization temperature and pressure, ÃŸ-carotene concentration, the quadrics of emulsifier concentration and the interactions between ÃŸ-carotene and emulsifier concentrations and between homogenization temperature and emulsifier concentration (P<0.05) had a significant effect on the stability of the emulsions. The optimum conditions for preparing ÃŸ-carotene nanoemulsions were predicted to be: homogenization pressure, 129 MPa; homogenization temperature, 47 °C; ÃŸ-carotene concentration, 0.82%; emulsifier concentration, 8.2%.
Yuan, Y., Gao, Y., Mao, L., & Zhao, J. (2008). Optimisation of conditions for the preparation of B-carotene nanoemulsion using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, 107(3), 1300-1306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.015