Outcomes and predictors in preschoolers with speech-language and/or developmental mobility impairments

Karla N. Washington, Nancy Thomas-Stonell, Sharynne McLeod, Genese Warr-Leeper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)


The purpose of this article is to describe communicative-participation outcomes measured by the Focus on the Outcomes of Communication Under Six (FOCUS©; Thomas-Stonell et al., 2013) for interventions provided by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in different community settings for preschoolers with speech-language impairments (Sp/LI) with and without developmental mobility impairments (MI). The predictive relationships between communicative-participation and (1) functioning-and-disability, and (2) contextual factors, was also investigated. Sixty-one preschoolers with Sp/LI and their parents participated. Twenty-six preschoolers were identified with Sp/LI and received speech-language interventions (Group 1), 20 preschoolers were identified with Sp/LI and MI and received speech-language interventions (Group 2), and 15 preschoolers with Sp/LI awaiting intervention served as waitlist controls (Group 3). Parents completed structured interviews about children’s communicative-participation outcomes using the FOCUS© at three time points (pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 3-months post-intervention) with an SLP. Only Groups 1 and 2 experienced statistically and clinically meaningful communicative-participation outcomes over time as measured by the FOCUS©. Pre- to post-intervention communicative-participation was predicted by functioning-and-disability and contextual factors, initial social skills and intervention status, respectively. Post-intervention to 3-month post-intervention scores were also predicted by functioning-and-disability and contextual factors, risk status (Sp/LI only, Sp/LI+developmental MI) and intervention status, respectively. Significant and clinically meaningful changes in communicative-participation over time are associated with speech-language interventions for preschoolers with Sp/LI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-157
Number of pages17
JournalChild Language Teaching and Therapy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


Cite this