Hemostasis is a complex and tightly regulated process whereby the body attempts to maintain a homeostatic balance to permit normal blood flow, without bleeding or thrombosis. When this balance is disrupted, due to trauma or underlying congenital bleeding or thrombotic disorders, clinical intervention may be required. To assist clinicians in diagnosing and managing affected patients, hemostasis laboratories offer an arsenal of tests, both routine (screening) and more specialized (diagnostic). In general, screening assays are used to screen for hemostasis-related disease or to monitor or measure the effect of anticoagulant therapy, which may be applied to treat patients with recent thrombosis or at risk of thrombosis. Diagnostic assays are used to diagnose or exclude specific hemostasis-related diseases, and in some cases, to monitor or measure the effect of anticoagulant therapy, or alternatively procoagulant therapy that may be applied to those at risk of bleeding. This chapter provides an overview of hemostasis and thrombosis with respect to laboratory tests that may be applied to affected patients.