Performance and weed-suppressive potential of selected pasture legumes against annual weeds in south-eastern Australia

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Abstract

Mixed farming systems have traditionally incorporated subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) as key components of the pasture phase across south-eastern Australia. However, poor adaptation of subterranean clover to acidic soils, insufficient and inconsistent rainfall, high input costs, soil acidification and the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds have reduced efficacy of some traditional clover species in recent years. To overcome these challenges, numerous novel pasture species have been selectively improved and released for establishment in Australia. Despite their suitability to Australian climate and soils, limited knowledge exists regarding their weed-suppressive ability in relation to establishment and regeneration. Field trials were therefore conducted over 3 years in New South Wales to evaluate the suppressive potential of selected pasture legume species and cultivars as monocultures and in mixed stands against dominant annual pasture weeds. Pasture and weed biomass varied significantly between pasture species when sown as monocultures, but mixtures of several species did not differ with regard to establishment and subsequent weed infestation. Arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi.) and biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L.) cv. Casbah showed improved stand establishment, with higher biomass and reduced weed infestation compared with other pasture species. Generally, weed suppression was positively correlated with pasture biomass; however, yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L.) cv. Santorini exhibited greater weed suppression than other pasture legumes while producing lower biomass, thereby suggesting a mechanism other than competition for resources affecting weed-suppressive ability. Over the period 2015–17, arrowleaf clover and biserrula cv. Casbah were generally the most consistent annual pasture legumes with respect to yearly regeneration and suppression of annual pasture weed species.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Pages (from-to)147-158
Number of pages12
JournalCrop and Pasture Science
Volume70
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Feb 2019

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annual weeds
forage legumes
weeds
pastures
Trifolium subterraneum
Ornithopus compressus
Trifolium vesiculosum
biomass
weed control
herbicide-resistant weeds
input costs
soil acidification
mixed stands
Medicago sativa
New South Wales
acid soils
alfalfa
field experimentation
farming systems
climate

Grant Number

  • MLA B.WEE.0146

Cite this

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title = "Performance and weed-suppressive potential of selected pasture legumes against annual weeds in south-eastern Australia",
abstract = "Mixed farming systems have traditionally incorporated subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) as key components of the pasture phase across south-eastern Australia. However, poor adaptation of subterranean clover to acidic soils, insufficient and inconsistent rainfall, high input costs, soil acidification and the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds have reduced efficacy of some traditional clover species in recent years. To overcome these challenges, numerous novel pasture species have been selectively improved and released for establishment in Australia. Despite their suitability to Australian climate and soils, limited knowledge exists regarding their weed-suppressive ability in relation to establishment and regeneration. Field trials were therefore conducted over 3 years in New South Wales to evaluate the suppressive potential of selected pasture legume species and cultivars as monocultures and in mixed stands against dominant annual pasture weeds. Pasture and weed biomass varied significantly between pasture species when sown as monocultures, but mixtures of several species did not differ with regard to establishment and subsequent weed infestation. Arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi.) and biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L.) cv. Casbah showed improved stand establishment, with higher biomass and reduced weed infestation compared with other pasture species. Generally, weed suppression was positively correlated with pasture biomass; however, yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L.) cv. Santorini exhibited greater weed suppression than other pasture legumes while producing lower biomass, thereby suggesting a mechanism other than competition for resources affecting weed-suppressive ability. Over the period 2015–17, arrowleaf clover and biserrula cv. Casbah were generally the most consistent annual pasture legumes with respect to yearly regeneration and suppression of annual pasture weed species.",
keywords = "competition and weed supression, establishment, hard-seeded legume, lucerne, subterranean clover",
author = "Sajid Latif and Saliya Gurusinghe and Paul Weston and William Brown and Jane Quinn and John Piltz and Weston, {Leslie A.}",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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journal = "Crop and Pasture Science",
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T1 - Performance and weed-suppressive potential of selected pasture legumes against annual weeds in south-eastern Australia

AU - Latif, Sajid

AU - Gurusinghe, Saliya

AU - Weston, Paul

AU - Brown, William

AU - Quinn, Jane

AU - Piltz, John

AU - Weston, Leslie A.

PY - 2019/2/26

Y1 - 2019/2/26

N2 - Mixed farming systems have traditionally incorporated subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) as key components of the pasture phase across south-eastern Australia. However, poor adaptation of subterranean clover to acidic soils, insufficient and inconsistent rainfall, high input costs, soil acidification and the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds have reduced efficacy of some traditional clover species in recent years. To overcome these challenges, numerous novel pasture species have been selectively improved and released for establishment in Australia. Despite their suitability to Australian climate and soils, limited knowledge exists regarding their weed-suppressive ability in relation to establishment and regeneration. Field trials were therefore conducted over 3 years in New South Wales to evaluate the suppressive potential of selected pasture legume species and cultivars as monocultures and in mixed stands against dominant annual pasture weeds. Pasture and weed biomass varied significantly between pasture species when sown as monocultures, but mixtures of several species did not differ with regard to establishment and subsequent weed infestation. Arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi.) and biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L.) cv. Casbah showed improved stand establishment, with higher biomass and reduced weed infestation compared with other pasture species. Generally, weed suppression was positively correlated with pasture biomass; however, yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L.) cv. Santorini exhibited greater weed suppression than other pasture legumes while producing lower biomass, thereby suggesting a mechanism other than competition for resources affecting weed-suppressive ability. Over the period 2015–17, arrowleaf clover and biserrula cv. Casbah were generally the most consistent annual pasture legumes with respect to yearly regeneration and suppression of annual pasture weed species.

AB - Mixed farming systems have traditionally incorporated subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) as key components of the pasture phase across south-eastern Australia. However, poor adaptation of subterranean clover to acidic soils, insufficient and inconsistent rainfall, high input costs, soil acidification and the emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds have reduced efficacy of some traditional clover species in recent years. To overcome these challenges, numerous novel pasture species have been selectively improved and released for establishment in Australia. Despite their suitability to Australian climate and soils, limited knowledge exists regarding their weed-suppressive ability in relation to establishment and regeneration. Field trials were therefore conducted over 3 years in New South Wales to evaluate the suppressive potential of selected pasture legume species and cultivars as monocultures and in mixed stands against dominant annual pasture weeds. Pasture and weed biomass varied significantly between pasture species when sown as monocultures, but mixtures of several species did not differ with regard to establishment and subsequent weed infestation. Arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi.) and biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L.) cv. Casbah showed improved stand establishment, with higher biomass and reduced weed infestation compared with other pasture species. Generally, weed suppression was positively correlated with pasture biomass; however, yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L.) cv. Santorini exhibited greater weed suppression than other pasture legumes while producing lower biomass, thereby suggesting a mechanism other than competition for resources affecting weed-suppressive ability. Over the period 2015–17, arrowleaf clover and biserrula cv. Casbah were generally the most consistent annual pasture legumes with respect to yearly regeneration and suppression of annual pasture weed species.

KW - competition and weed supression

KW - establishment

KW - hard-seeded legume

KW - lucerne

KW - subterranean clover

U2 - 10.1071/CP18458

DO - 10.1071/CP18458

M3 - Article

VL - 70

SP - 147

EP - 158

JO - Crop and Pasture Science

JF - Crop and Pasture Science

SN - 0004-9409

IS - 2

M1 - 7

ER -