Pharmacokinetics of bromide in adult sheep following oral and intravenous administration

Timothy Quast, Martin Combs, Scott Edwards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetics of bromide in sheep after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) doses. Procedure: Sixteen Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two treatment groups and given 120mg/kg bromide, as sodium bromide IV or potassium bromide PO. Serum bromide concentrations were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry. Results: After IV administration the maximum concentration (Cmax) was 822.11 ± 93.61mg/L, volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.286 ± 0.031L/kg and the clearance (Cl) was 0.836 ± 0.255mL/h/kg. After PO administration the Cmax was 453.86 ± 43.37mg/L and the time of maximum concentration (Tmax) was 108 ± 125h. The terminal half-life (t1/2) of bromide after IV and PO administration was 387.93 ± 115.35h and 346.72 ± 94.05h, respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) of bromide was 92%. No adverse reactions were noted in either treatment group during this study. The concentration versus time profiles exhibited secondary peaks, suggestive of gastrointestinal cyclic redistribution of the drug. Conclusions and clinical relevance: When administered PO, bromide in sheep has a long half-life (t1/2) of approximately 14 days, with good bioavailability. Potassium bromide is a readily available, affordable salt with a long history of medical use as an anxiolytic, sedative and antiseizure therapy in other species. There are a number of husbandry activities and flock level neurological conditions, including perennial ryegrass toxicosis, in which bromide may have therapeutic or prophylactic application.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-25
Number of pages6
JournalAustralian Veterinary Journal
Volume93
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015

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bromides
Bromides
intravenous injection
Intravenous Administration
oral administration
pharmacokinetics
Oral Administration
Sheep
Pharmacokinetics
sheep
potassium bromide
Biological Availability
half life
Half-Life
bioavailability
mouth
medical history
tranquilizers
Lolium
therapeutics

Cite this

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title = "Pharmacokinetics of bromide in adult sheep following oral and intravenous administration",
abstract = "Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetics of bromide in sheep after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) doses. Procedure: Sixteen Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two treatment groups and given 120mg/kg bromide, as sodium bromide IV or potassium bromide PO. Serum bromide concentrations were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry. Results: After IV administration the maximum concentration (Cmax) was 822.11 ± 93.61mg/L, volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.286 ± 0.031L/kg and the clearance (Cl) was 0.836 ± 0.255mL/h/kg. After PO administration the Cmax was 453.86 ± 43.37mg/L and the time of maximum concentration (Tmax) was 108 ± 125h. The terminal half-life (t1/2) of bromide after IV and PO administration was 387.93 ± 115.35h and 346.72 ± 94.05h, respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) of bromide was 92{\%}. No adverse reactions were noted in either treatment group during this study. The concentration versus time profiles exhibited secondary peaks, suggestive of gastrointestinal cyclic redistribution of the drug. Conclusions and clinical relevance: When administered PO, bromide in sheep has a long half-life (t1/2) of approximately 14 days, with good bioavailability. Potassium bromide is a readily available, affordable salt with a long history of medical use as an anxiolytic, sedative and antiseizure therapy in other species. There are a number of husbandry activities and flock level neurological conditions, including perennial ryegrass toxicosis, in which bromide may have therapeutic or prophylactic application.",
keywords = "Bromide, Pharmacokinetics, Sheep",
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Pharmacokinetics of bromide in adult sheep following oral and intravenous administration. / Quast, Timothy; Combs, Martin; Edwards, Scott.

In: Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 93, No. 1-2, 01.2015, p. 20-25.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmacokinetics of bromide in adult sheep following oral and intravenous administration

AU - Quast, Timothy

AU - Combs, Martin

AU - Edwards, Scott

N1 - Includes bibliographical references.

PY - 2015/1

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N2 - Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetics of bromide in sheep after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) doses. Procedure: Sixteen Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two treatment groups and given 120mg/kg bromide, as sodium bromide IV or potassium bromide PO. Serum bromide concentrations were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry. Results: After IV administration the maximum concentration (Cmax) was 822.11 ± 93.61mg/L, volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.286 ± 0.031L/kg and the clearance (Cl) was 0.836 ± 0.255mL/h/kg. After PO administration the Cmax was 453.86 ± 43.37mg/L and the time of maximum concentration (Tmax) was 108 ± 125h. The terminal half-life (t1/2) of bromide after IV and PO administration was 387.93 ± 115.35h and 346.72 ± 94.05h, respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) of bromide was 92%. No adverse reactions were noted in either treatment group during this study. The concentration versus time profiles exhibited secondary peaks, suggestive of gastrointestinal cyclic redistribution of the drug. Conclusions and clinical relevance: When administered PO, bromide in sheep has a long half-life (t1/2) of approximately 14 days, with good bioavailability. Potassium bromide is a readily available, affordable salt with a long history of medical use as an anxiolytic, sedative and antiseizure therapy in other species. There are a number of husbandry activities and flock level neurological conditions, including perennial ryegrass toxicosis, in which bromide may have therapeutic or prophylactic application.

AB - Objective: To determine the pharmacokinetics of bromide in sheep after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) doses. Procedure: Sixteen Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two treatment groups and given 120mg/kg bromide, as sodium bromide IV or potassium bromide PO. Serum bromide concentrations were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry. Results: After IV administration the maximum concentration (Cmax) was 822.11 ± 93.61mg/L, volume of distribution (Vd) was 0.286 ± 0.031L/kg and the clearance (Cl) was 0.836 ± 0.255mL/h/kg. After PO administration the Cmax was 453.86 ± 43.37mg/L and the time of maximum concentration (Tmax) was 108 ± 125h. The terminal half-life (t1/2) of bromide after IV and PO administration was 387.93 ± 115.35h and 346.72 ± 94.05h, respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) of bromide was 92%. No adverse reactions were noted in either treatment group during this study. The concentration versus time profiles exhibited secondary peaks, suggestive of gastrointestinal cyclic redistribution of the drug. Conclusions and clinical relevance: When administered PO, bromide in sheep has a long half-life (t1/2) of approximately 14 days, with good bioavailability. Potassium bromide is a readily available, affordable salt with a long history of medical use as an anxiolytic, sedative and antiseizure therapy in other species. There are a number of husbandry activities and flock level neurological conditions, including perennial ryegrass toxicosis, in which bromide may have therapeutic or prophylactic application.

KW - Bromide

KW - Pharmacokinetics

KW - Sheep

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SN - 0005-0423

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