Pharmacokinetics of intravenous continuous rate infusions of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium in adult horses

Scott H. Edwards, Shahid A. Khalfan, Glenn A. Jacobson, Adam D. Pirie, Sharanne L. Raidal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective to determine plasma Drug concentrations after IV administration of a bolus followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium to healthy adult horses. Animals 6 Thoroughbred mares (3 to 9 years old; mean ± SD body weight, 544 ± 55 kg) with no history of recent antimicrobial treatment. Procedures Horses were used in 2 experiments conducted 14 days apart. For each experiment, horses were housed individually in stables, and catheters were placed bilaterally in both jugular veins for Drug administration by CRI (left catheter) and for intermittent collection of blood samples (right catheter). Synovial fluid samples were obtained from carpal joints following ceftiofur administration to evaluate Drug diffusion into articular spaces. RESULTS Plasma concentrations above accepted minimum inhibitory concentrations for common pathogens of horses were achieved within 1 minute after bolus administration and remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for 48 (ceftiofur) or 12 (benzylpenicillin) hours (ie, the duration of the CRI). Mean synovial fluid ceftiofur free acid equivalent concentrations were approximately 46% (range, 25.4% to 59.8%) of plasma concentrations at the end of infusion. Conclusions and clinical relevance Compared with intermittent bolus administration, the loading dose and CRI used less Drug but maintained high plasma concentrations for the duration of infusion. By use of pharmacological parameters derived in this study, a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg and CRI of 200 μg/kg/h should achieve plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 4 μg/mL; a loading dose and CRI of 1.3 mg/kg and 2.5 μg/kg/h, respectively, should achieve plasma benzylpenicillin concentrations of 2 μg/mL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-26
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume78
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2017

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ceftiofur
benzylpenicillin
Penicillin G
pharmacokinetics
Horses
Pharmacokinetics
sodium
horses
catheters
drugs
synovial fluid
minimum inhibitory concentration
Catheters
Synovial Fluid
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Pharmaceutical Preparations
dosage
Carpal Joints
duration
jugular vein

Cite this

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title = "Pharmacokinetics of intravenous continuous rate infusions of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium in adult horses",
abstract = "Objective to determine plasma Drug concentrations after IV administration of a bolus followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium to healthy adult horses. Animals 6 Thoroughbred mares (3 to 9 years old; mean ± SD body weight, 544 ± 55 kg) with no history of recent antimicrobial treatment. Procedures Horses were used in 2 experiments conducted 14 days apart. For each experiment, horses were housed individually in stables, and catheters were placed bilaterally in both jugular veins for Drug administration by CRI (left catheter) and for intermittent collection of blood samples (right catheter). Synovial fluid samples were obtained from carpal joints following ceftiofur administration to evaluate Drug diffusion into articular spaces. RESULTS Plasma concentrations above accepted minimum inhibitory concentrations for common pathogens of horses were achieved within 1 minute after bolus administration and remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for 48 (ceftiofur) or 12 (benzylpenicillin) hours (ie, the duration of the CRI). Mean synovial fluid ceftiofur free acid equivalent concentrations were approximately 46{\%} (range, 25.4{\%} to 59.8{\%}) of plasma concentrations at the end of infusion. Conclusions and clinical relevance Compared with intermittent bolus administration, the loading dose and CRI used less Drug but maintained high plasma concentrations for the duration of infusion. By use of pharmacological parameters derived in this study, a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg and CRI of 200 μg/kg/h should achieve plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 4 μg/mL; a loading dose and CRI of 1.3 mg/kg and 2.5 μg/kg/h, respectively, should achieve plasma benzylpenicillin concentrations of 2 μg/mL.",
author = "Edwards, {Scott H.} and Khalfan, {Shahid A.} and Jacobson, {Glenn A.} and Pirie, {Adam D.} and Raidal, {Sharanne L.}",
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Pharmacokinetics of intravenous continuous rate infusions of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium in adult horses. / Edwards, Scott H.; Khalfan, Shahid A.; Jacobson, Glenn A.; Pirie, Adam D.; Raidal, Sharanne L.

In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 78, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 17-26.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmacokinetics of intravenous continuous rate infusions of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium in adult horses

AU - Edwards, Scott H.

AU - Khalfan, Shahid A.

AU - Jacobson, Glenn A.

AU - Pirie, Adam D.

AU - Raidal, Sharanne L.

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N2 - Objective to determine plasma Drug concentrations after IV administration of a bolus followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium to healthy adult horses. Animals 6 Thoroughbred mares (3 to 9 years old; mean ± SD body weight, 544 ± 55 kg) with no history of recent antimicrobial treatment. Procedures Horses were used in 2 experiments conducted 14 days apart. For each experiment, horses were housed individually in stables, and catheters were placed bilaterally in both jugular veins for Drug administration by CRI (left catheter) and for intermittent collection of blood samples (right catheter). Synovial fluid samples were obtained from carpal joints following ceftiofur administration to evaluate Drug diffusion into articular spaces. RESULTS Plasma concentrations above accepted minimum inhibitory concentrations for common pathogens of horses were achieved within 1 minute after bolus administration and remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for 48 (ceftiofur) or 12 (benzylpenicillin) hours (ie, the duration of the CRI). Mean synovial fluid ceftiofur free acid equivalent concentrations were approximately 46% (range, 25.4% to 59.8%) of plasma concentrations at the end of infusion. Conclusions and clinical relevance Compared with intermittent bolus administration, the loading dose and CRI used less Drug but maintained high plasma concentrations for the duration of infusion. By use of pharmacological parameters derived in this study, a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg and CRI of 200 μg/kg/h should achieve plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 4 μg/mL; a loading dose and CRI of 1.3 mg/kg and 2.5 μg/kg/h, respectively, should achieve plasma benzylpenicillin concentrations of 2 μg/mL.

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