Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after a single and multiple oral doses. ANIMALS: Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares. PROCEDURE: Horses were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. In Part 1 of the study, horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg KBr. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of bromide were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry following drug administration to permit determination of concentration versus time curves from which pharmacokinetic parameters could be calculated. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. RESULTS: Maximum mean serum bromide concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 284 +/- 15 microg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 +/- 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 days) gave a maximum serum bromide concentration of 1098 +/- 105 microg/mL. The administration of lower, maintenance doses of KBr (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 700 microg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A loading dose of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 days and maintenance doses of approximately 90-100 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily are predicted to result in serum bromide concentrations consistent withtherapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-193
Number of pages7
JournalAustralian Veterinary Journal
Volume86
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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potassium bromide
pharmacokinetics
Horses
Pharmacokinetics
bromides
Bromides
horses
dosage
Serum
mouth
specific ion electrodes
potassium
anticonvulsants
Ions
Standardbred
blood gases
Potassium Chloride
seizures
Partial Pressure
Spectrophotometry

Cite this

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title = "Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after a single and multiple oral doses. ANIMALS: Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares. PROCEDURE: Horses were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. In Part 1 of the study, horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg KBr. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of bromide were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry following drug administration to permit determination of concentration versus time curves from which pharmacokinetic parameters could be calculated. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. RESULTS: Maximum mean serum bromide concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 284 +/- 15 microg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 +/- 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 days) gave a maximum serum bromide concentration of 1098 +/- 105 microg/mL. The administration of lower, maintenance doses of KBr (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 700 microg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A loading dose of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 days and maintenance doses of approximately 90-100 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily are predicted to result in serum bromide concentrations consistent withtherapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.",
keywords = "Administration, Oral, Animals, Anticonvulsants/administration, Bromides/administration, Dosage/blood/*pharmacokinetics, Drug Administration Schedule, Horses/*metabolism, Potassium Compounds/administration, Treatment Outcome",
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Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses. / Raidal, Sharanne; Edwards, Scott Holtoum.

In: Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 86, No. 5, 2008, p. 187-193.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses

AU - Raidal, Sharanne

AU - Edwards, Scott Holtoum

N1 - Imported on 12 Apr 2017 - DigiTool details were: Journal title (773t) = Australian Veterinary Journal. ISSNs: 0005-0423;

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after a single and multiple oral doses. ANIMALS: Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares. PROCEDURE: Horses were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. In Part 1 of the study, horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg KBr. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of bromide were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry following drug administration to permit determination of concentration versus time curves from which pharmacokinetic parameters could be calculated. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. RESULTS: Maximum mean serum bromide concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 284 +/- 15 microg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 +/- 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 days) gave a maximum serum bromide concentration of 1098 +/- 105 microg/mL. The administration of lower, maintenance doses of KBr (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 700 microg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A loading dose of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 days and maintenance doses of approximately 90-100 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily are predicted to result in serum bromide concentrations consistent withtherapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after a single and multiple oral doses. ANIMALS: Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares. PROCEDURE: Horses were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. In Part 1 of the study, horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg KBr. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of bromide were determined by colorimetric spectrophotometry following drug administration to permit determination of concentration versus time curves from which pharmacokinetic parameters could be calculated. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. RESULTS: Maximum mean serum bromide concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 284 +/- 15 microg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 +/- 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 days) gave a maximum serum bromide concentration of 1098 +/- 105 microg/mL. The administration of lower, maintenance doses of KBr (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 700 microg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A loading dose of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 days and maintenance doses of approximately 90-100 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily are predicted to result in serum bromide concentrations consistent withtherapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.

KW - Administration, Oral

KW - Animals

KW - Anticonvulsants/administration

KW - Bromides/administration

KW - Dosage/blood/pharmacokinetics

KW - Drug Administration Schedule

KW - Horses/metabolism

KW - Potassium Compounds/administration

KW - Treatment Outcome

U2 - 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00250.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00250.x

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SP - 187

EP - 193

JO - Australian Veterinary Journal

JF - Australian Veterinary Journal

SN - 0005-0423

IS - 5

ER -