Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses

S. L. Raidal, S. Edwards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after single and multiple oral doses. Animals Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares Procedure Horses were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Group 1 horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg potassium bromide. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of KBr were measured to construct concentration versus time curves and to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. Results Maximum mean serum concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 423 ± 22 μg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 ± 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 d) gave a maximum serum concentration 1639 ± 156 μg/mL The administration of lower, maintenance doses (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 1000 μg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. Conclusions and clinical relevance Loading doses of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 d and maintenance doses of approximately 90 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily resulted in serum bromide concentrations consistent with therapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)425-430
Number of pages6
JournalAustralian Veterinary Journal
Volume83
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2005

Fingerprint

potassium bromide
pharmacokinetics
Horses
Pharmacokinetics
horses
dosage
Serum
bromides
Bromides
mouth
specific ion electrodes
potassium
anticonvulsants
Ions
Standardbred
blood gases
Potassium Chloride
seizures
Partial Pressure
bicarbonates

Cite this

@article{d6c0789e9b644c69a69fff0c69b50aff,
title = "Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses",
abstract = "Objective To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after single and multiple oral doses. Animals Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares Procedure Horses were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Group 1 horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg potassium bromide. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of KBr were measured to construct concentration versus time curves and to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. Results Maximum mean serum concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 423 ± 22 μg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 ± 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 d) gave a maximum serum concentration 1639 ± 156 μg/mL The administration of lower, maintenance doses (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 1000 μg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. Conclusions and clinical relevance Loading doses of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 d and maintenance doses of approximately 90 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily resulted in serum bromide concentrations consistent with therapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.",
author = "Raidal, {S. L.} and S. Edwards",
year = "2005",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/j.1751-0813.2005.tb13083.x",
language = "English",
volume = "83",
pages = "425--430",
journal = "Australian Veterinary Journal",
issn = "0005-0423",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "7",

}

Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses. / Raidal, S. L.; Edwards, S.

In: Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 83, No. 7, 01.12.2005, p. 425-430.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide in adult horses

AU - Raidal, S. L.

AU - Edwards, S.

PY - 2005/12/1

Y1 - 2005/12/1

N2 - Objective To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after single and multiple oral doses. Animals Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares Procedure Horses were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Group 1 horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg potassium bromide. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of KBr were measured to construct concentration versus time curves and to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. Results Maximum mean serum concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 423 ± 22 μg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 ± 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 d) gave a maximum serum concentration 1639 ± 156 μg/mL The administration of lower, maintenance doses (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 1000 μg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. Conclusions and clinical relevance Loading doses of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 d and maintenance doses of approximately 90 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily resulted in serum bromide concentrations consistent with therapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.

AB - Objective To determine the pharmacokinetics of potassium bromide (KBr) in horses after single and multiple oral doses. Animals Twelve adult Standardbred and Thoroughbred mares Procedure Horses were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Group 1 horses were given a single oral dose of 120 mg/kg potassium bromide. Part 2 of the study evaluated a loading dose of 120 mg/kg KBr daily by stomach tube for 5 days, followed by 40 mg/kg daily in feed for 7 days. Serum concentrations of KBr were measured to construct concentration versus time curves and to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Treated horses were monitored twice daily by clinical examination. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride ions and partial pressures of venous blood gases were determined. Results Maximum mean serum concentration following a single dose of KBr (120 mg/kg) was 423 ± 22 μg/mL and the mean elimination half-life was 75 ± 14 h. Repeated administration of a loading dose of KBr (120 mg/kg once daily for 5 d) gave a maximum serum concentration 1639 ± 156 μg/mL The administration of lower, maintenance doses (40 mg/kg once daily) was associated with decreased serum bromide concentrations, which plateaued at approximately 1000 μg/mL. Administration of KBr was associated with significant but transient changes in serum potassium and sodium concentrations, and possible changes in base excess and plasma bicarbonate concentrations. High serum concentrations of bromide were associated with an apparent increase in serum chloride concentrations, when measured on an ion specific electrode. Conclusions and clinical relevance Loading doses of 120 mg/kg daily over 5 d and maintenance doses of approximately 90 mg/kg of KBr administered once daily resulted in serum bromide concentrations consistent with therapeutic efficacy for the management of seizures in other species. The clinical efficacy of this agent as an anticonvulsant medication and/or calmative in horses warrants further investigation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=24044445853&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=24044445853&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2005.tb13083.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2005.tb13083.x

M3 - Article

VL - 83

SP - 425

EP - 430

JO - Australian Veterinary Journal

JF - Australian Veterinary Journal

SN - 0005-0423

IS - 7

ER -