The influence of soil type and management practices on P distribution in soils from Australian dairy and beef rearing pastoral systems has been investigated by chemical measurements and phosphorus-31 (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The amount and forms of P within the soil profile varied with soil type, with the acidic red Ferrosols containing relatively high orthophosphate concentrations, averaging 72.2% compared with 66.8% for Dermosols, under similar management conditions. Soil from Sodosol sites which received less fertiliser P addition had the lowest orthophosphate concentration with only 57.6%. In contrast, relatively high proportions of organic P were found in soil samples from unfertilised Sodosol sites. On average, soil from Sodosol sites contained 37.5% organic P (combined monoester P and diester P), while those from Dermosol and Ferrosol sites contained 31.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Of these, the highest monoester phosphate proportions of 44.6% (site M3) and 46.4% (site M4) were found in Sodosol sites with no recent P inputs, but the highest proportion of diester phosphate (5.7%) was found in an unclassified grey sandy loam Dermosol. The higher organic P concentrations in soil from Sodosol sites may be associated with more regular moisture input from both rainfall and boarder-check (flood) irrigation. The highest level of pyrophosphate (8.5%) was also found in a grey/yellow Sodosol. Overall, the results indicate that P speciation in the Australian soils is strongly influenced by soil type, fertiliser P application rate and timing, and moisture variations.