Phylogeny of beak and feather disease virus in cockatoos demonstrates host generalism and multiple-variant infections within Psittaciformes

Subir Sarker, Seyed Ghorashi, Jade Forwood, Stephen J. Bent, Andrew Peters, Shane Raidal

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Abstract

Phylogenetic analyses of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of the avian circovirus, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) from cockatoo species throughout Australia demonstrated a high mutation rate for BFDV (orders of magnitude fall in the range of 10-4 substitutions/site/year) along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. Multiple variants of BFDV were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to 7 variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of Order-wide host generalism in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-82
Number of pages11
JournalVirology
Volume460-461
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014

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Cockatoos
Psittaciformes
Circovirus
Phylogeny
Infection
Genetic Recombination
Birds
Australasia
Circular DNA
Feathers
Single-Stranded DNA
Mutation Rate
Genome
Viruses

Grant Number

  • FT120100242

Cite this

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title = "Phylogeny of beak and feather disease virus in cockatoos demonstrates host generalism and multiple-variant infections within Psittaciformes",
abstract = "Phylogenetic analyses of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of the avian circovirus, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) from cockatoo species throughout Australia demonstrated a high mutation rate for BFDV (orders of magnitude fall in the range of 10-4 substitutions/site/year) along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. Multiple variants of BFDV were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to 7 variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of Order-wide host generalism in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy.",
keywords = "Circovirus, Host generalism, Host switching, Multiple-variants, Mutation rate, Psittacine beak and feather disease, Viral quasispecies, Viral recombination",
author = "Subir Sarker and Seyed Ghorashi and Jade Forwood and Bent, {Stephen J.} and Andrew Peters and Shane Raidal",
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year = "2014",
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T1 - Phylogeny of beak and feather disease virus in cockatoos demonstrates host generalism and multiple-variant infections within Psittaciformes

AU - Sarker, Subir

AU - Ghorashi, Seyed

AU - Forwood, Jade

AU - Bent, Stephen J.

AU - Peters, Andrew

AU - Raidal, Shane

N1 - Includes bibliographical references.

PY - 2014/7

Y1 - 2014/7

N2 - Phylogenetic analyses of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of the avian circovirus, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) from cockatoo species throughout Australia demonstrated a high mutation rate for BFDV (orders of magnitude fall in the range of 10-4 substitutions/site/year) along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. Multiple variants of BFDV were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to 7 variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of Order-wide host generalism in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy.

AB - Phylogenetic analyses of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of the avian circovirus, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) from cockatoo species throughout Australia demonstrated a high mutation rate for BFDV (orders of magnitude fall in the range of 10-4 substitutions/site/year) along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. Multiple variants of BFDV were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to 7 variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of Order-wide host generalism in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy.

KW - Circovirus

KW - Host generalism

KW - Host switching

KW - Multiple-variants

KW - Mutation rate

KW - Psittacine beak and feather disease

KW - Viral quasispecies

KW - Viral recombination

U2 - 10.1016/j.virol.2014.04.021

DO - 10.1016/j.virol.2014.04.021

M3 - Article

VL - 460-461

SP - 72

EP - 82

JO - Virology

JF - Virology

SN - 0042-6822

IS - 1

ER -