Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes

Subir Sarker, Seyed Ghorashi, Jade Forwood, Stephen Bent, Andrew Peters, Shane Raidal

Research output: Other contribution to conferencePresentation only

Abstract

We investigated the phylogeny of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in cockatoo species throughout Australia in order to understand the competing forces of host-switch events, recombination and high mutation rate alongside a predicted slow replication rate within connected ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of 38 new BFDV genomes from cockatoos were used to assess host and geographically based divergence as well as probable host-switch events. We found extremely high mutation rate for BFDV of 8.18 ×10-4 subs/site/year along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. BFDV quasispecies were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to seven genotypic variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports a mosaic of geographic clustering throughout the landscape and flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of an Order-wide quasispecies effect for BFDV in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy. Consistent with quasispecies theory we suggest that maximum attainable rather than average replication interval may be important for contributing to the high degree of genetic diversity seen in BFDV species as a whole.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2014
EventAustralian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition - Pullman Melbourne Albert Park, Melbourne, Australia
Duration: 06 Jul 201409 Jul 2014
https://web.archive.org/web/20140330054717/http://asmmeeting.theasm.org.au:80/ (Conference website)

Exhibition

ExhibitionAustralian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition
Abbreviated titleSolving The Puzzles
CountryAustralia
CityMelbourne
Period06/07/1409/07/14
OtherThe Australian Society for Microbiology Annual Scientific Meeting & Trade Exhibition returns to Melbourne in 2014. This is the largest and most prestigious microbiology conference held in Australia and attracts approximately 600 microbiologists, allied professionals, researchers and academics from across the country and around the world.
Internet address

Fingerprint

Beak and feather disease virus
Psittaciformes
phylogeography
circular DNA
mutation
genetic variation
Australasian region
genome
birds
phylogeny
Cacatuidae
feathers
viruses
ecosystems

Grant Number

  • FT120100242

Cite this

Sarker, S., Ghorashi, S., Forwood, J., Bent, S., Peters, A., & Raidal, S. (2014). Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes. Paper presented at Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.
Sarker, Subir ; Ghorashi, Seyed ; Forwood, Jade ; Bent, Stephen ; Peters, Andrew ; Raidal, Shane. / Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes. Paper presented at Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.
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title = "Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes",
abstract = "We investigated the phylogeny of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in cockatoo species throughout Australia in order to understand the competing forces of host-switch events, recombination and high mutation rate alongside a predicted slow replication rate within connected ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of 38 new BFDV genomes from cockatoos were used to assess host and geographically based divergence as well as probable host-switch events. We found extremely high mutation rate for BFDV of 8.18 ×10-4 subs/site/year along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. BFDV quasispecies were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to seven genotypic variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports a mosaic of geographic clustering throughout the landscape and flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of an Order-wide quasispecies effect for BFDV in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy. Consistent with quasispecies theory we suggest that maximum attainable rather than average replication interval may be important for contributing to the high degree of genetic diversity seen in BFDV species as a whole.",
keywords = "Quasispecies, Circovirus, Viral recombination, Psittacine beak and feather disease, Host generalism, Mutation rate",
author = "Subir Sarker and Seyed Ghorashi and Jade Forwood and Stephen Bent and Andrew Peters and Shane Raidal",
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Sarker, S, Ghorashi, S, Forwood, J, Bent, S, Peters, A & Raidal, S 2014, 'Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes', Paper presented at Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia, 06/07/14 - 09/07/14.

Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes. / Sarker, Subir; Ghorashi, Seyed; Forwood, Jade; Bent, Stephen; Peters, Andrew; Raidal, Shane.

2014. Paper presented at Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.

Research output: Other contribution to conferencePresentation only

TY - CONF

T1 - Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes

AU - Sarker, Subir

AU - Ghorashi, Seyed

AU - Forwood, Jade

AU - Bent, Stephen

AU - Peters, Andrew

AU - Raidal, Shane

N1 - Imported on 03 May 2017 - DigiTool details were: publisher = 2014. Event dates (773o) = 6-9 July 2014; Parent title (773t) = Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - We investigated the phylogeny of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in cockatoo species throughout Australia in order to understand the competing forces of host-switch events, recombination and high mutation rate alongside a predicted slow replication rate within connected ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of 38 new BFDV genomes from cockatoos were used to assess host and geographically based divergence as well as probable host-switch events. We found extremely high mutation rate for BFDV of 8.18 ×10-4 subs/site/year along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. BFDV quasispecies were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to seven genotypic variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports a mosaic of geographic clustering throughout the landscape and flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of an Order-wide quasispecies effect for BFDV in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy. Consistent with quasispecies theory we suggest that maximum attainable rather than average replication interval may be important for contributing to the high degree of genetic diversity seen in BFDV species as a whole.

AB - We investigated the phylogeny of the highly genetically diverse but antigenically conserved, single-stranded circular, DNA genome of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in cockatoo species throughout Australia in order to understand the competing forces of host-switch events, recombination and high mutation rate alongside a predicted slow replication rate within connected ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of 38 new BFDV genomes from cockatoos were used to assess host and geographically based divergence as well as probable host-switch events. We found extremely high mutation rate for BFDV of 8.18 ×10-4 subs/site/year along with strong support for recombination indicating active cross-species transmission in various subpopulations. BFDV quasispecies were demonstrated with at least 30 genotypic variants identified within nine individual birds, with one containing up to seven genotypic variants. Single genetic variants were detected in feathers from 2 birds but splenic tissue provided further variants. The rich BFDV genetic diversity points to Australasia as the most likely geographical origin of this virus and supports a mosaic of geographic clustering throughout the landscape and flexible host switching. We propose this as evidence of an Order-wide quasispecies effect for BFDV in the Psittaciformes characterised by high mutability that is buffered by frequent recombination and slow replication strategy. Consistent with quasispecies theory we suggest that maximum attainable rather than average replication interval may be important for contributing to the high degree of genetic diversity seen in BFDV species as a whole.

KW - Quasispecies

KW - Circovirus

KW - Viral recombination

KW - Psittacine beak and feather disease

KW - Host generalism

KW - Mutation rate

UR - https://web.archive.org/web/20150226205751/http://asmmeeting.theasm.org.au/program-2/

M3 - Presentation only

ER -

Sarker S, Ghorashi S, Forwood J, Bent S, Peters A, Raidal S. Phylogeography of beak and feather disease virus from Australian cockatoos reflects host generalism and an order-wide quasispecies effect within Psittaciformes. 2014. Paper presented at Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM) Annual Scientific Meeting and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia.