Thirty-nine wheat accessions were used to evaluate their extract phytotoxicity against annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). Aqueous extracts of wheat shoot residues significantly inhibited the germination and root growth of a biotype of annual ryegrass resistant to herbicides of acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors (group A), acetolactate synthase inhibitors (B), photosystem II inhibitors (C), and tubulin formation inhibitors (D). The germination of the herbicide resistant (HR) biotype was inhibited by 3'100%, depending upon the wheat accession. The phytotoxic effects on ryegrass root growth ranged from 12% stimulation to 100% inhibition, compared to a control. The germination and root growth of a herbicide-susceptible (HS) biotype of annual ryegrass were also inhibited by the wheat extracts, with germination inhibited by 4'100%, and root growth by 19'100%. Bioassays with two known wheat allelochemicals showed that p-coumaric acid and propionic acid significantly inhibited the growth of both HR and HS biotypes of annual ryegrass. The two compounds completely inhibited the root growth of HR ryegrass at concentrations greater than 5.0 mM. In comparison with p-coumaric acid, propionic acid was more inhibitory to seed germination, shoot, and root growth of both ryegrass biotypes. The root growth of the HR biotype was more sensitive when exposed to wheat extracts, to p-coumaric acid, and to propionic acid. The results suggest that residues of certain wheat cultivars with strong allelopathic potential could provide a nonherbicidal alternative for the management of herbicide-resistant weed species.