@article{eeee5c1dec4e4e908457cae54f8c5181,

title = "Population properties of compact objects from the second LIGO-Virgo gravitational-wave transient catalog",

abstract = "We report on the population of 47 compact binary mergers detected with a false-alarm rate of <1 yr-1 in the second LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog. We observe several characteristics of the merging binary black hole (BBH) population not discernible until now. First, the primary mass spectrum contains structure beyond a power law with a sharp high-mass cutoff; it is more consistent with a broken power law with a break at 39.7-+9.120.3 M? or a power law with a Gaussian feature peaking at 33.1-+5.64.0 M? (90% credible interval). While the primary mass distribution must extend to ~65 M? or beyond, only 2.9-+1.73.5% of systems have primary masses greater than 45 M?. Second, we find that a fraction of BBH systems have component spins misaligned with the orbital angular momentum, giving rise to precession of the orbital plane. Moreover,12%-44% of BBH systems have spins tilted by more than 90°, giving rise to a negative effective inspiral spin parameter, ceff. Under the assumption that such systems can only be formed by dynamical interactions, we infer that between 25% and 93% of BBHs with nonvanishing ceff| > 0.01 are dynamically assembled. Third, we estimate merger rates, finding RBBH = 23.9-+8.614.3 Gpc-3 yr-1 for BBHs and RBNS = 320-+240490 Gpc-3 yr-1 for binary neutron stars. We find that the BBH rate likely increases with redshift (85% credibility) but not faster than the star formation rate (86% credibility). Additionally, we examine recent exceptional events in the context of our population models, finding that the asymmetric masses of GW190412 and the high component masses of GW190521 are consistent with our models, but the low secondary mass of GW190814 makes it an outlier.",

author = "{LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration} and R. Abbott and Abbott, {T. D.} and S. Abraham and F. Acernese and K. Ackley and A. Adams and C. Adams and Adhikari, {R. X.} and Adya, {V. B.} and C. Affeldt and M. Agathos and K. Agatsuma and N. Aggarwal and Aguiar, {O. D.} and L. Aiello and A. Ain and P. Ajith and G. Allen and A. Allocca and Altin, {P. A.} and A. Amato and S. Anand and A. Ananyeva and Anderson, {S. B.} and Anderson, {W. G.} and Angelova, {S. V.} and S. Ansoldi and Antelis, {J. M.} and S. Antier and S. Appert and K. Arai and Araya, {M. C.} and Areeda, {J. S.} and M. Ar{\`e}ne and N. Arnaud and Aronson, {S. M.} and Arun, {K. G.} and Y. Asali and S. Ascenzi and G. Ashton and Aston, {S. M.} and P. Astone and F. Aubin and P. Aufmuth and K. AultONeal and C. Austin and V. Avendano and S. Babak and F. Badaracco and Bader, {M. K.M.} and S. Bae and Baer, {A. M.} and S. Bagnasco and J. Baird and M. Ball and G. Ballardin and Ballmer, {S. W.} and A. Bals and A. Balsamo and G. Baltus and S. Banagiri and D. Bankar and Bankar, {R. S.} and Barayoga, {J. C.} and C. Barbieri and Barish, {B. C.} and D. Barker and P. Barneo and S. Barnum and F. Barone and B. Barr and L. Barsotti and M. Barsuglia and D. Barta and J. Bartlett and I. Bartos and R. Bassiri and A. Basti and M. Bawaj and Bayley, {J. C.} and M. Bazzan and Becher, {B. R.} and B. B{\'e}csy and Bedakihale, {V. M.} and M. Bejger and I. Belahcene and D. Beniwal and Benjamin, {M. G.} and Bennett, {T. F.} and Bentley, {J. D.} and F. Bergamin and Berger, {B. K.} and G. Bergmann and S. Bernuzzi and Berry, {C. P.L.} and D. Bersanetti and A. Bertolini and J. Betzwieser and R. Bhandare and Bhandari, {A. V.} and D. Bhattacharjee and J. Bidler and Bilenko, {I. A.} and G. Billingsley and R. Birney and O. Birnholtz and S. Biscans and M. Bischi and S. Biscoveanu and A. Bisht and M. Bitossi and Bizouard, {M. A.} and Blackburn, {J. K.} and J. Blackman and Blair, {C. D.} and Blair, {D. G.} and Blair, {R. M.} and O. Blanch and F. Bobba and N. Bode and M. Boer and Y. Boetzel and G. Bogaert and M. Boldrini and F. Bondu and E. Bonilla and R. Bonnand and P. Booker and Boom, {B. A.} and R. Bork and V. Boschi and S. Bose and V. Bossilkov and V. Boudart and Y. Bouffanais and A. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Brady, {P. R.} and A. Bramley and M. Branchesi and Brau, {J. E.} and M. Breschi and T. Briant and Briggs, {J. H.} and F. Brighenti and A. Brillet and M. Brinkmann and P. Brockill and Brooks, {A. F.} and J. Brooks and Brown, {D. D.} and S. Brunett and G. Bruno and R. Bruntz and A. Buikema and T. Bulik and Bulten, {H. J.} and A. Buonanno and R. Buscicchio and D. Buskulic and Byer, {R. L.} and M. Cabero and L. Cadonati and M. Caesar and G. Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Bustillo, {J. Calder{\'o}n} and Callaghan, {J. D.} and Callister, {T. A.} and E. Calloni and Camp, {J. B.} and M. Canepa and Cannon, {K. C.} and H. Cao and J. Cao and G. Carapella and F. Carbognani and Carney, {M. F.} and M. Carpinelli and G. Carullo and Carver, {T. L.} and Diaz, {J. Casanueva} and C. Casentini and S. Caudill and M. Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and G. Cella and P. Cerd{\'a}-Dur{\'a}n and E. Cesarini and W. Chaibi and K. Chakravarti and C. Chan and C. Chan and K. Chandra and P. Chanial and S. Chao and P. Charlton and Chase, {E. A.} and E. Chassande-Mottin and D. Chatterjee and D. Chattopadhyay and M. Chaturvedi and K. Chatziioannou and A. Chen and Chen, {H. Y.} and X. Chen and Y. Chen and Cheng, {H. P.} and Cheong, {C. K.} and Chia, {H. Y.} and F. Chiadini and R. Chierici and A. Chincarini and A. Chiummo and G. Cho and Cho, {H. S.} and M. Cho and S. Choate and N. Christensen and Q. Chu and S. Chua and Chung, {K. W.} and S. Chung and G. Ciani and P. Ciecielag and M. Cieslar and M. Cifaldi and Ciobanu, {A. A.} and R. Ciolfi and F. Cipriano and A. Cirone and F. Clara and Clark, {E. N.} and Clark, {J. A.} and L. Clarke and P. Clearwater and S. Clesse and F. Cleva and E. Coccia and Cohadon, {P. F.} and Cohen, {D. E.} and M. Colleoni and Collette, {C. G.} and C. Collins and M. Colpi and M. Constancio and L. Conti and Cooper, {S. J.} and M. Thomas",

note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2021. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.",

year = "2021",

month = may,

day = "20",

doi = "10.3847/2041-8213/abe949",

language = "English",

volume = "913",

pages = "1--41",

journal = "Letters of the Astrophysical Journal",

issn = "2041-8205",

publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",

number = "1",

}