Predicting mood outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI): PTA & demographic variables

Clive Skilbeck, Matt Thomas, Kieran Holm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background and aims:

Mood disturbance is frequent after traumatic brain injury (TBI), often assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Research supports a three-factor HADS structure (anxiety, depression, and psychomotor), although this has not been used to investigate demographic variables and mood outcome post-TBI. This study examined severity of TBI, demographic variables [age, gender, estimated premorbid IQ (EIQ), relationship status, employment status, socio-economic status (SES)], and mood outcome, using HADS factor scores from a large adult population sample in Tasmania.


HADS factor scores were calculated for an initial sample of 596 adults. The sample sizes varied according to those attending at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months post-TBI and the available data for each dependent variable.


Significantly higher anxiety, depression, and psychomotor scores were reported at most follow-ups by females, the middle-aged, and those with lower IQs. Longer post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) was associated with significantly greater mood problems. Occasional significant findings at earlier follow-ups for the factors were noted for those unemployed. Other variables were rarely significant. PTA, premorbid IQ, and Age were included in most Multiple Regression equations predicting outcome for the factors, with Gender included for Anxiety and depression at 6 months after injury.


Key demographic variables and PTA severity relate to mood post-TBI, and contribute to predicting mood outcome. Differences in findings for the three factors support their use in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-85
Number of pages20
JournalBrain Impairment
Issue number1
Early online date26 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


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