Surveys of petal infestation and stem infection conducted in 1998, 1999 and 2000 indicated that Sclerotinia sclerotiorum poses a threat to the Australian canola industry. Inoculum was present throughout all canola-growing regions of New South Wales and the stem disease was widespread throughout southern New South Wales. Percentage petal infestation increased over the 3 years surveyed with values ranging from 0 to 99.4%. The highest petal infestation values were observed in 2000 (maximum of 99.4%, mean of 82.2%), with lower mean values in 1998 (38.4%) and 1999 (49.6%). Stem infection ranged from 0 to 37.5% and most fields had less than 10% stem infection. Stem rot incidence before harvest did not relate to percentage petal infestation determined during flowering. This indicated that factors other than percentage petal infestation were important in influencing stem rot incidence. While there was no relationship between percentage petal infestation and stem rot incidence, stem infection never occurred without prior petal infestation.