Despite their economic and ecological importance, migratory fishes of the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) remain understudied, which hampers effective management to sustain valuable fisheries and address serious threats such as habitat degradation, development and overharvest. From a list of potential knowledge needs, a group of fisheries professionals most frequently identified six top priorities for managing migratory fishes in Cambodia: (1) population abundances and trends, (2) life cycles and life history, (3) migration timing and triggers, (4) migration routes and distances, (5) locations of key habitats and spawning areas, and (6) environmental and habitat requirements. These needs are discussed along with nine relevant methodologies for addressing them, including fisheries-dependent and fisheries-independent sampling, reproductive techniques and captive studies, otolith and genetic analysis tools, and tagging and imaging techniques. A suggested research framework is also presented to inform adaptive management of migratory fishes. While emphasis is given to Cambodia, the analysis is also applicable to other LMB countries, given that migratory fishes occur throughout the basin and migrate across borders. It is suggested that a robust research and monitoring agenda is required to prioritise knowledge needs and select appropriate methodologies to answer questions vital to inform sustainable migratory fish management in Cambodia.