The present article reports on research conducted to identify profiles of psychological resilience using factor mixture models. We also examine gender as a predictor of resilience profile membership and career optimism, academic satisfaction, and psychological well-being as outcomes of profile membership. Based on resilience data from university students with disabilities, factor mixture modeling revealed three distinct profiles of resilience (viz., “vulnerable,” “spirituality-dominant,” and “engaged-resilient”). Results also revealed that females were almost 4 times as likely to be in the spirituality-dominant profile than the vulnerable profile. Finally, distal outcome analyses revealed that career optimism, academic satisfaction, and well-being were higher in the engaged-resilient profile than the other profiles. Notably, spirituality-dominant and vulnerable individuals possessed about the same levels of career optimism, satisfaction, and well-being. The findings have important implications for the theory and assessment of resilience, suggesting the tenability of a person-centered assessment of psychological resilience.