The aim of the present study was to use Fourier analysis to quantify and study age-related changes in midsagittal facial profile. Materials and methods: Midsagittal facial profiles were extracted as lists of x and y coordinates from 125 pairs of 3D facial scans captured at an average of 10.5 years apart for adult Japanese males aged 23–52 years. These were categorized into three 10-year-long age groups. Files of x and y coordinates underwent Fourier analysis at 30 harmonic levels. Paired t-tests were used to determine statistical significance of differences across corresponding harmonic coefficients. Mean harmonic coefficients were used to construct mean pre and post ageing profiles for each age group for qualitative comparisons. Results: Full detail of facial profile was described by the first 20 harmonics. With increasing age, there was a trend of longitudinal changes involving more midsagittal shape features with increased magnitudes. However, all changes were lower than 1 mm. Conclusions: Fourier analysis is a useful morphometric approach to quantify age-related midsagittal facial changes. The small variations in the study groups prompt for testing Fourier analysis on the elderly and on other parasagittal and transverse facial features.
Shaweesh, A. I., Matthews, H., Penington, A., Fan, Y., & Clement, J. G. (2019). Quantification of age-related changes in midsagittal facial profile using Fourier analysis: A longitudinal study on Japanese adult males. Forensic Science International, 299, 239.e1-239.e9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.04.006