Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been examined for allelopathic potential against annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum). The bioassay technique, ''equal-compartment-agar-method'', was employed to evaluate seedling allelopathy in a doubled-haploid (DH) population derived from cv Sunco (weakly allelopathic) and cv Tasman (strongly allelopathic). A significant difference in allelopathic activity was found among the DH lines, which inhibited the root length of ryegrass across a range from 23.7 to 88.3%. The phenotypic data showed that wheat allelopathic activity was distributed normally within this DH population and a substantial transgressive segregation for seedling allelopathic activity was also found. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (SSRs) markers identified two major QTLs on chromosome 2B associated with wheat allelopathy. The linkage analysis of genetic markers and the QTLs may improve genetic gains for the allelopathic activity through marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. The development of wheat allelopathic cultivars could reduce the over-reliance of weed control on synthetic herbicides.