Reality Monitoring in Hypnosis: A Real-Simulating Analysis

Richard A. Bryant, David Mallard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The extent to which hypnotic suggestions are perceived as real is central to understanding hypnotic response. This study indexed the reality attributed to hypnotic suggestion through subtle projection of a visual image during simultaneous suggestion for a visual hallucination that resembled the projected image. Twenty real hypnotized and 20 simulating nonhypnotized participants were administered a hypnotic induction and given a suggestion to hallucinate a shape, and then the projected image was introduced. Following the hypnosis session, an Experiential Analysis Technique was employed to index experiential responses. Real, but not simulating, participants made comparable reality ratings when the projected image was absent and present. Reals, but not simulators, also reported more effort in maintaining belief in the suggestion when the projection was absent. These findings suggest that the reality attributed to a hypnotic suggestion cannot be attributed to demand characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-25
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2005


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