Background This study was designed to investigate the effect of nesiritide, a recombinant B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), on plasma aldosterone and vascular remodelling following balloon-induced endothelial injuries to the iliac arteries.MethodsTwenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were divided into nesiritide (0.1mg/kg/day, sc, for 4 weeks, n=12) and saline-treated control group (n=12). A balloon catheter was inserted to the right iliac artery to induce endothelia injuries. Plasma aldosterone was measured before and 28 days after the treatment by radioimmunoassay.ResultsThe area under internal elastic membrane (657.1±129.6 vs 486.7±124.0'm2, P=0.02) and the area under external elastic membrane (1506.2±188.3.9 vs 1185.0±202.9'm2, P=0.02) in the nesiritide group were greater than in the control group. The stenosis ratio in the nesiritide group was lower than in the control group (20.1±6.2% vs 39.6±9.5%, P=0.01). The plasma levels of aldosterone (2.03±0.31 vs 3.00±0.29ng/L, P<0.01) in the nesiritide group was lower than in the control group. Pearson's correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the levels of plasma aldosterone and the stenosis ratio of the injured right iliac arteries (r=0.622, P=0.002).ConclusionNesiritide treatment reduced stenosis ratio of the rabbit iliac artery following balloon-induced endothelial injuries, and the reduced stenosis ratio was associated with a reduction in the plasma aldosterone concentrations.