The primary aim of this study is to investigate the factors related to the recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after a successful ablation of atrioventricular accessory pathway. Thirty-seven patients with spontaneous AF (study group) were selected from 401 consecutive patients who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrioventricular accessory pathway. A multivariate regression analysis was used in order to evaluate the relationships between AF recurrence and patients' age, sex, atrial size, left ventricular function, location of accessory pathways, heart rate during atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia and atrial vulnerability (induction of sustained AF) after a successful ablation. Atrioventricular accessory pathway was abolished in 36 of the study group patients and 351 of the control group patients. During the follow-up of 36 ± 11 months, four patients (11.1%) from the study group experienced sustained AF. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, in patients with pre-ablation AF, older age and post-ablation atrial vulnerability were the only independent predictive factors for AF recurrence. We concluded that radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrioventricular accessory pathway greatly reduces the risk of AF in patients who had a history of symptomatic AF. Older patients and patients with inducible AF after accessory pathway ablation are at an increased risk of AF recurrence. These patients should be closely monitored after successful ablation of atrioventricular accessory pathways.