Most affluent people are at least partially aware of the great magnitude of world poverty. A great many of the affluent believe that the lives of all people everywhere are of equal fundamental worth when viewed impartially. In some contexts, at least, they will also assert that people ought to prevent serious suffering when they can do so, even at significant cost to themselves. But these same people contribute little or nothing to relief efforts or development initiatives, and do not actively pressure their governments to alter their economic policies toward poorer countries in ways that might benefit them. Why do the affluent do so little, and demand so little of their governments, while remaining confident that they are morally decent people who generally fulfil their duties to others? Are affluent people and the governments that represent them actually fulfilling their duties to the global poor, despite appearances to the contrary? What kinds of changes in the behaviour of affluent people and their governments could bring about substantial improvements in the lives of the global poor?