Reversible Reactions: Extent of Reaction and Theoretical Yield

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Theoretical yield and extent of reaction (degree of completion) are important concepts in stoichiometry and in chemical kinetics. We provide expressions describing theoretical yield (Y) and maximum extent of reaction (fractional yield, fmax) for five examples of commonly encountered reversible chemical reactions: A ⇌ B; A + B ⇌ C + D; A + B + C ⇌ D + E + F; A ⇌ B + C; and A + B ⇌ C. We discuss how the equilibrium constant and initial reactant concentration influence the maximum fractional yield (degree of reaction completion) and Y and illustrate their effects on specific examples of reversible reactions: conformer equilibria, esterification reaction, and ionization of weak acids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)443-447
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Chemical Education
Issue number2
Early online date24 Dec 2019
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2020


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