Risk and protective factors associated with speech and language impairment in a nationally representative sample of 4- to 5-year-old children

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Abstract

Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family and community factors previously reported as being predictors of speech and language impairment were tested as predictors of: 1) parent-rated expressive speech/language concern and 2) receptive language concern, 3) use of speech-language pathology services, 4) low receptive vocabulary. Results: Bivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed 29 of the identified factors; however, when tested concurrently with other predictors in multivariate analyses, only 19 remained significant: nine for two to four outcomes and ten for one outcome. Consistent risk factors were being male, having ongoing hearing problems, and a more reactive temperament. Protective factors were having a more persistent and more sociable temperament, and higher levels of maternal well being. Results differed by outcome for having an older sibling, parents speaking a language other than English (LOTE), and parental support for children's learning at home. Conclusions: Identification of children requiring speech and language assessment requires consideration of the context of family life as well as biological and psychosocial factors intrinsic to the child.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-529
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
Volume53
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2010

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Language
language
Temperament
parents
Single-Parent Family
Speech-Language Pathology
Vocabulary
biological factors
Biological Factors
psychosocial factors
Hearing
Longitudinal Studies
Protective Factors
Language Impairment
Speech Impairment
Siblings
pathology
Multivariate Analysis
Parents
Logistic Models

Cite this

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title = "Risk and protective factors associated with speech and language impairment in a nationally representative sample of 4- to 5-year-old children",
abstract = "Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family and community factors previously reported as being predictors of speech and language impairment were tested as predictors of: 1) parent-rated expressive speech/language concern and 2) receptive language concern, 3) use of speech-language pathology services, 4) low receptive vocabulary. Results: Bivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed 29 of the identified factors; however, when tested concurrently with other predictors in multivariate analyses, only 19 remained significant: nine for two to four outcomes and ten for one outcome. Consistent risk factors were being male, having ongoing hearing problems, and a more reactive temperament. Protective factors were having a more persistent and more sociable temperament, and higher levels of maternal well being. Results differed by outcome for having an older sibling, parents speaking a language other than English (LOTE), and parental support for children's learning at home. Conclusions: Identification of children requiring speech and language assessment requires consideration of the context of family life as well as biological and psychosocial factors intrinsic to the child.",
keywords = "Communication, Epidemiology, Language, Protective factor, Risk factor, Speech",
author = "Linda Harrison and Sharynne McLeod",
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N2 - Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family and community factors previously reported as being predictors of speech and language impairment were tested as predictors of: 1) parent-rated expressive speech/language concern and 2) receptive language concern, 3) use of speech-language pathology services, 4) low receptive vocabulary. Results: Bivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed 29 of the identified factors; however, when tested concurrently with other predictors in multivariate analyses, only 19 remained significant: nine for two to four outcomes and ten for one outcome. Consistent risk factors were being male, having ongoing hearing problems, and a more reactive temperament. Protective factors were having a more persistent and more sociable temperament, and higher levels of maternal well being. Results differed by outcome for having an older sibling, parents speaking a language other than English (LOTE), and parental support for children's learning at home. Conclusions: Identification of children requiring speech and language assessment requires consideration of the context of family life as well as biological and psychosocial factors intrinsic to the child.

AB - Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family and community factors previously reported as being predictors of speech and language impairment were tested as predictors of: 1) parent-rated expressive speech/language concern and 2) receptive language concern, 3) use of speech-language pathology services, 4) low receptive vocabulary. Results: Bivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed 29 of the identified factors; however, when tested concurrently with other predictors in multivariate analyses, only 19 remained significant: nine for two to four outcomes and ten for one outcome. Consistent risk factors were being male, having ongoing hearing problems, and a more reactive temperament. Protective factors were having a more persistent and more sociable temperament, and higher levels of maternal well being. Results differed by outcome for having an older sibling, parents speaking a language other than English (LOTE), and parental support for children's learning at home. Conclusions: Identification of children requiring speech and language assessment requires consideration of the context of family life as well as biological and psychosocial factors intrinsic to the child.

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