Assessment of the risks and needs of juvenile offenders is widely accepted as fundamentally important in juvenile justice. We describe two inventories that are being used in Australian settings to systematically undertake such assessment: (a) the Secure Care Psychosocial Screening (SECAPS) assessment (Putnincedilscaron 1999a), and (b) the Australian Adaptation of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI-AA; Hoge & Andrews, 1995). The conceptual, empirical and practical background for these instruments is provided. We report on the development and current status of the inventories. Advantages of structured assessment of risks and needs are highlighted, as are several caveats that deserve consideration.