Services aimed at achieving desirable clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus

Fergus William Gardiner, Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Phillip Taderera Bwititi, Judith Crockett, Lexin Wang

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There is a large number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension (HT) but whether the targets on blood pressure (BP) control in patients with DM and/or CKD are met is not clear. This narrative review therefore investigated evidence on services aimed at achieving desirable clinical results in patients with CKD and DM, and HT in Australia. Literature pertaining to pathology diagnosis and management of these patients as well as the complexities in management were considered. This involved evidence from PubMed-listed articles published between 1993 and 2016 including original research studies, focusing on randomised controlled trials and prospective studies where possible, systematic and other review articles, meta- analyses, expert consensus documents and specialist society guidelines, such as those from the National Heart Foundation of Australia, American Diabetes Association, the Department of Health, The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, and The Australasian College of Emergency Medicine. Based on the literature reviewed, it is yet unknown as to how effective programs, such as diabetes inpatient services, endocrine out-patient services, and cardiac rehabilitation services, are at achieving guideline recommendations. It is also not clear how or whether clinicians are encumbered by complexities in their efforts of adhering to DM, HT, and glucose control recommendations, and the potential reasons for clinical inertia. Future studies are needed to ascertain the extent to which required BP and glucose control in patients is achieved, and whether clinical inertia is a barrier.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalSAGE Open Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


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