In several unconfined aquifers under irrigated agricultural areas, the groundwater system consists of a saturated porous medium containing miscible fluids (fresh groundwater and saline groundwater). The native groundwater is deep and saline because of the marine origin of the hydrogeologic formation. However, fresh groundwater lenses from deep percolation of the extensive water conveyance and distribution system, as well as from irrigation and rainfall, overlie this native saline groundwater. The thickness of these fresh groundwater lenses varies from a few meters to more than 100 meters. Farmers are using this skimmed groundwater to fill the gap between the supply and demand of surface water in the conjunctive water use environment of the Indus Basin of Pakistan.
|Title of host publication||Water Encyclopedia|
|Editors||Thomas B Kingery III, Jack Keeley editor in chief, Janet Lehr senior editor, Thomas B Kingery III associate associate editor|
|Place of Publication||USA|
|Publisher||John Wiley & Sons|
|Number of pages||1|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|