A collection of nematodes from the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (National Museum of Natural History), Paris, France,was studied. The nematodes had previously been collected from a range of marine fish hosts. The aim of this study was to investigate the identity of these nematodes. Detailed body measurements of the nematodes were taken via light microscopy and where possible first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA were subjected to PCR, purified and sequenced. Six species and three larval types were found from a range of fish species and included 13 new host records and two new geographical records. Of the taxa found, Hysterothylacium kajikiae is the only species which may have zoonotic potential. The majority of host fish in this study are edible species, commercially and recreationally fished and frequently incorporated into the cuisine of New Caledonia as raw fish dishes. This study will allow better understanding of the diversity,life cycles, distribution and host-parasite relationships in the New Caledonia area.