The complex nature of freshwater systems provides challenges for incorporating evidence-based techniques into management. This paper investigates the potentialof participatory evidence-based techniques to involvelocal stakeholders and make decisions based on different“knowledge” sources within adaptive management programs. It focuses on the application of thresholds ofpotential concern (TPC) within strategic adaptive management (SAM) for facilitating inclusive decision-making. Thestudy is based on the case of the Edward-Wakool (E-W)“Fish and Flows” SAM project in the Murray–Darling RiverBasin, Australia. We demonstrate the application of TPCsfor improving collaborative decision-making within the EW, associated with environmental watering requirements,and other natural resource management programs such asfish stocking. The development of TPCs in the E-W fish and flows SAM project helped improve stakeholder involvement and understanding of the system, and also the effectiveness of the implemented management interventions. TPCs ultimately helped inform environmental flow management activities. The TPC process complemented monitoring that was already occurring in the system and provided a mechanism for linking formal and informal knowledge to form explicit and measurable endpoints from objectives. The TPC process faced challenges due to the perceived reduction in scientific rigor within initial TPC development and use. However, TPCs must remain tangible to managers and other stakeholders, in order to aid in the implementation of adaptive management. Once accepted by stakeholders, over time TPCs should be reviewed and refined in order to increase their scientific rigor, as new information is generated.