Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are key vectors for gene therapy; thus, many aspects of their cell transduction pathway have been revealed in detail. However, the specific mechanisms AAV virions use to enter the host nucleus remain largely unresolved. We therefore aimed to reveal the structural interactions between the AAV capsid (Cap) protein and the nuclear transport protein importin alpha (IMPα). A putative nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in the virion protein 1 capsid protein of the porcine AAV Po1 was identified. This region was complexed with IMPα and a structure solved at 2.26 Å. This is the first time that an NLS of AAV Cap complexed with IMPα has been determined structurally. Our results support the findings that AAV capsids enter the nucleus through binding the nuclear import adapter IMPα.