The susceptibility of 34 almond cultivars to rust [Transchelia discolor] was evaluated over a period of 4 years at two locations in South Australia on naturally and artificially inoculated trees. Cultivar tolerance to rust was measured by leaf area infection, uredia density or defoliation. At both sites the severity of rust leaf infections were positively correlated with defoliation at harvest. All cultivars were susceptible to rust, with the level of susceptibility varying between cultivars. Two major varieties grown in Australia, Nonpareil and Carmel, were susceptible to rust infection and/or early defoliation. Inoculation studies showed Carmel and Nonpareil produced more uredia than Price, while fewer urediniospores per uredia developed on Nonpareil compared to Carmel. With natural infections, more disease developed in Carmel and Nonpareil compared to Price. Masbovera, Mod Alnem 15, Mod Alnem 8, Ferraduel and Ferragnes were less prone to natural infection or produced fewer uredia after inoculation than more susceptible cultivars such as Nonpareil. Early defoliation was less on Masbovera compared with Nonpareil, Ne Plus Ultra, Sauret and Carmel. While no immune cultivars were identified, tolerant cultivars were identified that are less prone to rust infection, produce fewer uredia after infection and are less likely to defoliate prematurely. Future work should focus on artificial inoculation to screen cultivars for use as potential parents in almond breeding programs.